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Tool Name
Framework for Teaching by Charlotte Danielson

Evaluation Type
Classroom Observations

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All Grades

Use of Evaluation


The Framework for Teaching:

The Framework for PC:  
This tool is a powerful data collection instrument (TimerData Observation Software) and a digitalized version of Charlotte Danielson's Framework for Teaching process.

This product was developed by Charlotte Danielson.

Product Description
The Framework for Teaching is a classroom observation instrument founded on a research-based set of components of instruction. The Framework is aligned to the INTASC standards and grounded in a constructivist perspective. In this framework, teaching is divided into 22 components clustered into four domains of teaching responsibility: planning and preparation, classroom environment, instruction, and professional responsibilities. Rubrics focus users on levels of teaching performance that describe each component and provide a roadmap for improvement of teaching. The Framework may be used for many purposes, but its full value is realized as a formative assessment for professional conversations among practitioners as they seek to enhance skill in teaching. The Framework may be used as the foundation of a school's or district's mentoring, coaching, professional development, and teacher evaluation processes, thus linking all those activities together and helping teachers become more thoughtful practitioners. The developer encourages adaptation of the tool for different users' specific needs.

General Target Population Information
The Framework is designed for use by school districts, inidividual schools, and some state-level agencies.

Stage of Teacher Development
All Stages


The Framework is used in many districts and states throughout the country. Examples include the Idaho Teacher Performance Evaluation, the Delaware Performance Appraisal System, and the Cincinatti Teacher Evaluation System. In addition, the Chicago Public Schools Framework for Teaching is based on Danielson's Framework.

The Framework is also currently being used in the Understanding Teaching Quality (UTC) study conducted by ETS, the RAND Corporation, and the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. Drew Gitomer, Ph.D., and Courtney Bell, Ph.D., of ETS are leading the study, which is funded by a four-year grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Research and Resources

Kimball, S., White, B., Milanowski, A. T., & Borman, G. (2004, July). Examining the relationship between teacher evaluation and student assessment results in Washoe County. Peabody Journal of Education, 79(4), 54–78.

Milanowski, A. (2004). The relationship between teacher performance evaluation scores and student achievement: Evidence from Cincinnati. Peabody Journal of Education, 79(4), 33–53.

Dr. Gitomer and Dr. Bell of ETS are currently conducting additional research.

Consultant Albert Miller discourages the use of an estimated cost since every school system has nuances. Different districts have different processes, and all those nuances impact how training is designed. Programs are designed to meet district needs, and cost is determined based on those needs.

Contact Information
ASCD (publishers of the Framework for Teaching)
1703 North Beauregard St.
Alexandria, VA 22311-1714
Phone: 800-933-ASCD (2723)
Fax: 703-575-5400

Support Available
Training begins with an overall introduction to the Framework; then more specific training takes place, which is usually a five-day process. After the initial training, coaching and observation continue until a level of interreliability is met. The group prefers to work at the administrative level; specifically district level and state level and even building leadership level. They do train trainers within a district because they want enough people internally trained to continue using the Framework in the district.