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Tool Name
Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) Instrument

Evaluation Type
Teacher Self-Report Measures

Mathematics specific

Elementary Grades only
Middle Grades only

Use of Evaluation
Used in Research

No URL is currently available.

This product was developed by the Learning Mathematics for Teaching Project.

Product Description
The MKT Instrument measures the extent to which a teacher is familiar with the mathematical concepts necessary to teach mathematics. A teacher is measured based on 83 codes in five areas: instructional formats/content, knowledge of mathematics in lesson, use of mathematics with students, mathematics included in the curriculum and teacher's guide, and use of mathematics to teach equitably. The Mathematical Quality of Instruction observation protocol was created to validate the MKT.

General Target Population Information
This instrument was created to determine Grades K–8 teachers' level of the mathematical knowledge for teaching for research purposes only.

Stage of Teacher Development
Any Stage

The instrument was created for research and has only been used in research.

Research and Resources

Hill, H. C., Blunk, M. L., Charalambous, C. Y., Lewis, J. M., Phelps, G. C., Sleep, L., et al. (2008). Mathematical knowledge for teaching and the mathematical quality of instruction: An exploratory study. Cognition and Instruction, 26(4), 430–511.

Learning Mathematics for Teaching. (in press). Measuring the mathematical quality of mathematics teaching. Journal for Mathematics Teacher Education.

Learning Mathematics for Teaching (2006). A coding rubric for measuring the mathematical quality of instruction (Technical Report LMT1.06). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, School of Education.

Additional Research

Heather Hill, Ph.D., and Charalambos Charalambous are conducting research to ensure the reliability and accuracy of MQI.

Additional research is currently under way by Courtney Bell, Ph.D., and Drew Gitomer, Ph.D., of ETS.

This instrument is not for sale.

Contact Information
Heather Hill
Harvard Graduate School of Education
Phone: 617-495-1898

Support Available

This product is not for sale; however, the observation tool developed to validate the MKT is (see the Mathematical Quality of Instruction observtion protocol).

For more information about the Mathematical Quality of Instruction observation protocol, see the following resource:

Hill, H. C., Rowan, B., Loewenberg, & Ball, D. L. (2005). Effects of teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 42(2), 371. Retrieved April 2, 2010, from