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Tool Name
SAS Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS)

Evaluation Type
Value-Added Models

All Subjects

All Grades

Use of Evaluation


This product was developed by William Sanders.

Product Description

Although statistically robust, all SAS EVAAS analyses are built upon the simple concept of following each student over time, thus utilizing all available scores from each student’s informational array to lessen the measurement imprecision of a student’s single score. Although conceptually simple, the statistical rigor necessary to provide precise and reliable information requires that several nontrivial analytical problems be addressed when analyzing longitudinal student data:

  • How to accommodate fractured student records and missing data. Simpler approaches introduce major biases by either eliminating the data for students with missing scores or by using overly simplistic imputation procedures.
  • How to exploit all of the longitudinal data for each student when all of the historical data are not on the same scale.
  • How to provide educational policymakers flexibility in the use of historical data when testing regimes have changed over time.

SAS EVAAS value-added analyses measure the influence of schooling entities on the academic progress of students at three levels (district, building, and classroom). EVAAS value-added models use multivariate, longitudinal data structures to provide precise and reliable measures of the influence of educational entities on the academic progress of populations of students. Whether used diagnostically or as an augmentation of accountability, value-added models offer policymakers a reliable metric to assess the effectiveness of districts, schools, and teachers. The EVAAS projection methodology provides educators with estimates of individual students’ likelihood of reaching future academic targets. Depending on the testing available, these targets could include next-grade proficiency levels, end-of-course tests, requirements for high school graduation, exemption from postsecondary remedial courses, and success in both nontechnical and STEM majors.

General Target Population Information
This product was developed for teachers, schools, and districts in tested subjects and grades.

Stage of Teacher Development

All Stages

This product is used statewide in Tennessee, North Carolina, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. It is also available in TAP schools in Texas, Louisiana, and South Carolina and in many districts throughout the country, such as Houston Independent School District and Ft. Worth Independent School District.

Research and Resources

Sanders, W. L., Saxton, A. M., & Horn, S. P. (1997). The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System: A quantitative outcomes-based approach to educational assessment. In J. Millman (Ed.), Grading teachers, grading schools: Is student achievement a valid educational measure? (pp. 137–162). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Retrieved April 2, 2010, from

Sanders, W. L., Wright, S. P., & Langevin, W. E. (2008, February). Do teacher effect estimates persist when teachers move to schools with different socioeconomic environments? Presented at National Center on Performance Incentives National Conference on Performance Incentives: Their Growing Impact on American K– 12 Education, Vanderbilt University Peabody College, Nashville, TN.

Wright, S. P., Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (2006). Measurement of academic growth of individual students toward variable and meaningful academic standards: Longitudinal and value added models of student performance (pp. 385–406). In R. Lissitz (Ed.), Maple Grove, MN: JAM Press. Retrieved April 2, 2010, from

Published district price would not exceed $2.50 per student or $25.00 per teacher.

Contact Information
June Rivers
SAS Campus Drive, Building U
Cary, NC  27513
Phone: 919-531-1075

Support Available
Support is available through SAS EVAAS, which has a dedicated and experienced team available for professional development and user support.