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Tool Name
Classroom Language Assessment System (CLASS) 4.24

Evaluation Type
Classroom Observations

Language Arts specific

All Grades

Use of Evaluation
Used in Research


This product was developed by Martin Nystrand at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

Product Description
CLASS 4.24 is a Windows program that observers use to code questions asked in the classroom. Information is collected on the source of questions, the response, uptake, the authenticity of the question, any previous information that may be included in an answer or question, and the cognitive level. Version 4.24 of the program is the most recent version.

General Target Population Information
This tool can be used in any language arts classroom to measure the quality of questions and responses in the classroom.

Stage of Teacher Development
All Stages

This protocol has been used in the research of the following individuals: Mary Juzwik at Michigan State, Ian Wilkinson at Ohio State, and Adam Gamoran at the Wisconsin Center for Education Research (WCER). When Martin Nystrand codirected the National Research Center on English Learning and Achievement (CELA) with Judith Langer and Arthur Applebee, both campus sites (SUNY–Albany and University of Wisconsin–Madison) used the program.

Research and Resources

Nystrand, M. (1997). Opening dialogue: Understanding the dynamics of language and learning in the English classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.

Nystrand, M. (2006). Research on the role of classroom discourse as it affects reading comprehension. Research in the Teaching of English, 40, 392–412.

The computer program and manual are available online at at no charge.

Contact Information
Martin Nystrand
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Department of English
6187c Helen C. White Hall
Madison, WI 53706-1475
Phone: 608-263-3822
Fax: 608-263-3709

Support Available
The computer program and manual are available online at